SmartHer Week Ahead
Click "view sources" for notable news events to kick off your week feeling #SmartHer. Watch our social media feeds or SmartHerNews.com for updates on these stories all week long.
Does Spanking Your Children Make Them More Violent?
- Researchers examined huge survey covering many topics given to families in 88 nations.
- Looked at youth violence rates for countries that outlaw spanking and/or corporal punishment vs. countries with partial bans (in schools) & those with no bans.
- Countries with outright bans had 69% less violence (physical fights) w/boys; 42% lower w/girls.
“All we can say, at this point, is that countries that prohibit the use of corporal punishment are less violent for children to grow up in than countries that do not,”
Something To Consider
- In 1977, the Supreme Court ruled corporal punishment in school was constitutional. Today, 31 states have outlawed it, 19 still permit it. There is no federal law prohibiting it.
- Study looked at gov’t policies on spanking AND corporal punishment; NOT family spanking.
- A recent study in 2016 by Univ. of Texas/Univ. of Michigan examined the effect *SPECIFICALLY* spanking has on children using research that spanned 5 decades; 160,000 children.
- Conclusion: Spanking “does the opposite of what parents usually want it to do” – doesn’t lead to better discipline and may lead to negative consequences.
While recent research shows spanking may have negative consequences, recent polling shows the majority of Americans believe children should be spanked as a form of punishment. What do you think?
An iconic badge of civic duty since the 1980s, but who created it?
Well, that gets a little sticky.
“I Voted” First?
- Phoenix Assoc. of Realtors claims it was first in 1985, encouraging turnout by using stickers to remind afternoon voters.
- But others report the first mention was in Florida in 1982
- Election supply co. copyrighted iconic waving flag design in 1987.
- By 1988, stickers were distributed widely throughout the nation.
Beyond Red, White & Blue
Look & size of “I Voted” stickers have changed:
- Georgia uses a peach.
- Ohio a silhouette of the state.
- California’s comes in 13 languages.
Some cities & counties have their own designs while others stopped using the stickers.
Why It Matters
Research is unclear if stickers encourage voting, but a 2016 study found: many Americans vote so we can tell everyone we voted & we don’t want to have to lie if we didn’t.
“…telling people they’re going to be asked about voting will make them more likely to vote.”
After Chicago got rid of "I voted" stickers to stop vandalism, angry voters demanded an alternative. In 2016, the city debuted a paper wristband - like you'd get at a nightclub. New bands cost 2 cents per eligible voter ($28K) while the sticker cost less than a penny.
Your Voting Records Are *Partially* Public Record
Many Americans worry about election hacking, but did you know a lot of your voting & campaign contribution info is already public?
Your Voting Record
Public disclosure laws vary by state, but most states make the following information publicly available:
- your party affiliation
- your name & contact info (address, phone, email)
- your voting history (when you voted) BUT NOT who (candidates) you voted for or what (ballot measures) you voted for/against
- FEC mandates reporting to ensure compliance with federal campaign laws.
- Your donations to political parties, candidates & political action groups (PACs) totaling $200 or more are reported & viewable on the FEC website.
- Money you give to political nonprofits are mostly unreported.
Two new mobile apps, OutVote and VoteWithMe, are making it even easier for others to lookup your voting history. They both allow your contacts to access your voting history and remind you to vote on Election Day.
SmartHer Week Ahead
TIME TO FALL BACK
Daylight Saving Time
Ends Sunday at 2AM
We gain an hour of sleep…
But we lose an hour of sunlight.
100 Years of Daylight Saving Time (DST)
- Enacted to save coal in Spring of 1918 during WWI, but abolished by Congress after the war.
- Re-established during WWII.
- In 1966, became law under the Uniform Time Act.
- In 2007, it was expanded to encompass 65% of the year.
- Arizona, Hawaii & U.S. Territories like Puerto Rico don’t follow DST.
Time for a Change?
- Multiple states want year-round DST – no more “springing forward.”
- Florida may be the first IF Congress signs off on the bill passed by the state legislature & signed by the gov; sponsors say it would improve the economy, public safety & mental health.
- Californians will vote on DST on Tuesday.
Bad For Your Health?
Transition to & from DST linked to:
- Higher heart attack & stroke risk
- Drop in success rates for IVF
- Fatigue, decreased productivity
- Worsening S.A.D. (Seasonal Affective Disorder) with lack of sunshine
Most are due to *temporary* sleep deprivation & circadian rhythm changes.
8 months of the year are in daylight time & 4 months are in standard time. For those who miss the evening sunlight... we go back to daylight saving time on Sunday, March 10, 2019. That's 10 days before spring arrives.
THE “RIGHT” TO VOTE
Will you CHOOSE to vote in Tuesday’s midterms elections?
Depending on your sex, age, race, & socioeconomic status, that CHOICE wasn’t always yours.
A look back at WHO got the vote & WHEN:
1776: The Beginning
On July 4, 1776, America declared its independence from Britain. The first presidential election wasn’t until nearly 13 years later in 1789.
Voting rights were largely decided by the states until 1957. In most states, the right to vote was limited initially to land owners (mostly white men).
1870: POST-CIVIL WAR
The 15th Amendment granted all citizens, regardless of their race, the right to vote.
Granted voting rights to African-American men (NOT Native Americans).
States used other ways to deny the vote to some (ex: poll taxes where you pay $$ to vote & literacy tests).
The 19th Amendment grants women the right to vote.
The U.S. wasn’t the first. Twenty-seven years earlier New Zealand became the first country in the world to grant all women the right to vote.
Due to state laws, the right was mostly limited to white women.
1924: Native Americans
The Indian Citizenship Act granted Native Americans citizenship, and thus, the right to vote.
However, the states were still free to impose limits on the right to vote for many years. In 1962, New Mexico became the last state to grant Native Americans voting rights.
1960s: Voting Rights
Important for securing the right to vote for African Americans & others by outlawing some state-imposed barriers.
- In 1964, Congress passed the 24th Amendment, which banned poll taxes.
- In 1965, Congress enacted the Voting Rights Act, which prohibited literacy tests.
President Trump says he plans to end birthright citizenship (any baby born in the U.S. automatically becomes U.S. citizen – regardless of their parents’ citizenship) without going through Congress.
Where does the policy come from & why it matters.
- Concept of birthright citizenship did NOT always exist. Example: babies born on Ellis Island (est. 350 babies) not a U.S. citizen.
- Who became a U.S. citizen not ALWAYS managed by federal gov’t. The states had a more prominent role determining immigration/citizenship laws; became a federal responsibility in late 1800s.
The 14th Amendment
“All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside.”
Power of The President
- Debate exists, but the majority of legal scholars & prominent GOP leaders, inc. Speaker of the House Paul Ryan (R-WI) agree Pres. Trump cannot end birthright citizenship via executive order without violating the Constitution.
- HOWEVER, that doesn’t mean there aren’t legal ways to change birthright citizenship.
Federal Law: Legal scholars debate whether Congress could pass a bill to end birthright citizenship. Sen. Graham (R-SC) said he plans to introduce a bill to do just that. All similar bills have failed.
Constitutional Amendment: 14th Amendment can be changed like other amendments – via constitutional amendment passed by Congress & ratified by the states.
- The Supreme Court ruled in 1898 a child born in the U.S. to Chinese citizens who established legal U.S. residency was entitled to U.S. citizenship under the 14th amendment.
- HOWEVER, the high court has never been challenged about whether citizenship is AUTOMATIC to ILLEGAL residents of the U.S.
Those born in the U.S. to parents of foreign diplomats, on foreign ships in U.S. territory, and/or to hostile occupying forces are NOT automatically U.S. citizens.
However, those born to noncitizen criminals (such as someone breaking U.S. immigration law) or those convicted of a crime ARE citizens.
The U.S. & Canada are two of the 30+ countries with birthright citizenship. According to the latest stats, in 2014, 275,000 (7% of all U.S. births) babies gained birthright citizenship - that's down from 370,000 (9% of all U.S. births) in 2007.
As we honor the victims of the Pittsburgh tragedy, why America mourns by lowering the flag halfway.
The tradition dates back to the 17th century, according to the Washington Post.
Ships would lower their flags after tragedy to make room for an “invisible flag of death” flying above.
It was described as “half mast,” but U.S. reserves that term for ships, on land it is called “half-staff.”
A Symbol of Shared Loss
- Dept. of Veterans Affairs says a flag at half-staff is when “whole nation is in mourning.”
- Nationwide half-staff ordered only by Presidential proclamation.
- State & local flags aren’t allowed to fly above the American flag, must be lowered too.
- Governors & mayors may order lowering of flags of state or city.
History & Etiquette
No rules existed until President Eisenhower’s proclamation in 1954:
- After death of a president, flags lowered for 30 days.
- Current VP, Chief Justice, & House Speaker for 10 days.
- Always half-staff: Patriot Day, Peace Officers Memorial Day, & Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day.
- Only until noon: Memorial Day.
“What is the message that the administration wants to get out? I would argue that one of the most powerful symbols you can use in the presidency is the flag.”
Is Half-Staff the Law?
While you can follow how the executive branch flies the flag, it’s not a requirement & there’s no penalty because that would be a violation of the First Amendment.
To properly fly a flag at half-staff, raise it to the top before slowly lowering to the halfway point. It should be raised again to the top before lowering for the day.
It's not just an American symbol of mourning, flags are flown at half staff throughout the world. The Royal Standard, British monarch's flag, is an exception because even after the death of a monarch there is always an immediate successor to the throne.
After the most dangerous volcano on U.S soil made headlines this summer in Hawaii, the U.S. Geological Survey updates 13-year-old volcano data – listing the biggest threats to America.
Here’s what you need to know.
Something to Consider
America has largest number of volcanoes in the world; USGS evaluated 161 in its study.
BUT U.S. is not even in Top 10 countries most at risk. Indonesia, overwhelmed by the “Ring of Fire’s” seismic activity, holds that title.
U.S. eruption with largest loss of life was Mt St. Helens, killing 57 in 1980.
What the Report Says
The Good News: 11 volcanoes deemed a “very low” threat in 2005 are now no longer a threat. No additional volcanoes added to “very high threat” category.
The Not So Good News: 18 volcanoes remain “very high” threat from 2005, 11 of which are in Washington, Oregon, or California. 5 more are near Alaska city centers.
Why It Matters
- New USGS research is designed, *not* to guess which volcano is going to blow next, but rather to predict the “severity of impacts” from any possible future eruptions.
- With “very high threat” volcanoes in high-population areas, new data helps officials plan for worst.
- Risks not the same; eruptive style varies by volcano & geography.
Gov't scientists used dozens of factors to compute a volcano's threat. So which is the one to watch? It's been in the headlines this year... Kīlauea destroyed 700 homes & businesses this summer in Hawaii. Washington's Mt Saint Helens & Mt Rainier = next biggest threats.
Pittsburgh Synagogue Hate Crime
The man who killed 11 Jewish worshipers on Saturday was charged with 29 federal crimes, including hate crimes, but not terrorism. WHY?
“The distinction between a hate crime and domestic terrorism is a hate crime is where an individual is animated by a hatred or certain animus toward a person of a certain ethnicity or religious faith…. It becomes domestic terrorism where there’s an ideology that that person is then also trying to propagate through violence.”
- DEFINITION: An illegal act “inspired by or associated with primarily U.S.-based movements that espouse political, religious, social, racial, or environmental extremist ideologies.”
- ORIGINS: 2001 USA Patriot Act expanded the powers of federal investigators to examine “home grown terror”, but there is NO crime of “domestic terrorism.”
- DEFINITION: A crime “motivated in whole or in part by a bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity.”
- ORIGINS: 1968 hate crimes law modified by 2009 Matthew Shepard & James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, which added gender & gender identity.
WHY IT MATTERS:
- Where the crime results in death, the death penalty is a potential sentence for both hate crimes and acts of domestic terror.
- Under federal law, a hate crime is a “sentence enhancement” or allows for tougher sentencing. An act of terror is separate crime.
- Often those linked to domestic terror ideologies are charged w/ hate crimes – NOT terrorism.
FYI: Man arrested last wk for mail-bomb scare was NOT charged with terrorism. Neither were two other men associated with major acts of domestic terror: Theodore Kaczynski (Unabomber) or Timothy McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber).
SmartHer Week Ahead
Click "view sources" for the notable news events to kick off your week feeling SmartHer. Watch our social media feeds or SmartHerNews.com for updates on these stories all week long.