March 7, 1965
A pivotal turning point in America’s civil rights movement.
- Congress passed the 15th Amendment in 1870 to guarantee that the right to vote “shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
- However, many states passed laws or employed practices that still limited access for some voters – i.e. poll taxes, literacy exams, fraud, and intimidation.
- Approx. 600 nonviolent activists planned to march 54 miles from Selma to Montgomery, AL as a protest for African-American voting rights.
- They made it only 6 blocks, crossing the Edmund Pettus Bridge – where law enforcement ordered the march to stop & disperse.
- Armed officers, many in gas masks, beat and tear-gassed protesters.
- Photographers captured the violent scene, broadcast around the world.
“Mr. Williams said, ‘Can I have a word?’ He said, ‘There will be no word.’ And about a minute or more Major Cloud ordered the Troopers to advance … they moved forward with their clubs up over their—near their shoulder, the top part of the body; they came rushing in, knocking us down and pushing us.”
Congressman John Lewis – a young civil rights leader at the time – led the march with Hosea Williams, a fellow activist.
In the days that followed, 80 cities around the nation held demonstrations in support of the protestors.
Faith & civil rights leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., flew to Selma.
3 weeks later, under the protection of thousands of soldiers (& federal agents), 3000+ set out to march from Selma to Montgomery. Ultimately, 25,000 marchers arrived.
“What happened in Selma is part of a far larger movement which reaches into every section and State of America … And we shall overcome.”
Pres. Lyndon Johnson in the days following the march. Months later, he signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law, which many see as a direct legislative action in response to "Bloody Sunday." The law prohibits literacy tests and requires federal oversight over any other local laws that could lead to limiting voting rights.
“There are more bridges to cross, but we will make it … I just believe deeply within it’s just a matter of time, that fate and history will come together. And we will get there.”
The late U.S. Rep. John Lewis (D-GA) in 2019 discussing "Bloody Sunday." Rep. Lewis, who died in July 2020 at the age of 80, was brutally beaten that day. He spent his career in public service advocating for racial equality; this is the first Sunday in 56 years he will not be present to mark the day in person.
In 2013 the Edmund Pettus Bridge, named after a Confederate general, was designated as a U.S. National Historic Landmark to honor the events of Bloody Sunday. In recent years, there's been a movement to rename the bridge; these efforts gained further steam after Rep. John Lewis' death in 2020.
Changing the name of the Edmund Pettus Bridge: The National Historic Landmark is currently named after a Confederate general and is being petitioned to change its name to honor Rep. John Lewis. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/18/us/politics/edmund-pettus-bridge-renamed-john-lewis.html –
John Lewis Bridge: https://johnlewisbridge.com
by Jenna Lee,